Avoiding the Info-Dump

I graduated from college back in May after a very busy senior year, during which I was fortunate enough to not only do a senior thesis, but to do a novel that I really wanted to write as a senior thesis and get excellent feedback from my advisor and a fellow senior. Around April my advisor, a creative writing professor with quite a few books published, my second reader, a favorite teacher of mine who was as much a nerd and an even bigger science-fiction enthusiast than I am, and I met for my thesis discussion, where we’d go over the progress of my novel and where I would go for the third draft once I got around to that.

While they generally liked my story, which is titled Rose, they had a number of very good suggestions on ways to make it better. One of the suggestions, and something that I hadn’t even considered, was that a lot of the information received about my antagonist came in three big bursts over the course of the story. They suggested that maybe I should space out when such information was given, and maybe vary my sources. In fact, they pointed out that one character seemed to be there only just to dole out information about the antagonist. He didn’t really serve any purpose beyond that.

This stunned me. And you know what else? I realized they were right. I was doing a lot of info-dumping in this story, and that it was actually working against the story I was trying to tell. Since then, I’ve been thinking a lot about ways to avoid info-dumping in this and future stories, and I thought I’d share some of those tips with you.

But first, what exactly is an info-dump? It’s when a huge amount of information is deposited in a single place. In fiction, it’s like exposition, only it’s too much exposition. Think of it like this: if any of you watch Once Upon a Time, you know that flashbacks are a big part of the show and that the writers take care to reveal new facts over time, peeling away layers so that there’s always a bit of mystery left in the characters you think you know very well. Now imagine in one episode they took all the backstory of a single character and reveal it all at once? That’s so much information, it’d make for a five-hundred page biography! And all in the course of forty-two minutes. You’d be overwhelmed. That there is an info-dump, and it’s something writers should take pains to avoid.

So how do you avoid the info-dump?

The key is to space out the information you reveal. Don’t reveal everything about a character, a place, or an object all at once. Instead make sure it happens gradually, over a long period of time, and between reveals make sure there’s time for the characters to do other stuff and for the reader to focus their attention on other aspects of the story. After all, between flashbacks on Once Upon a Time, there’s still evil witches or monsters or manipulative adolescents to deal with.

Another good tip is to make the information come from multiple sources. Look at Voldemort from the Harry Potter series. How do we find out about him, who he is, where he came from and what he did? Well, we find all that out over time, but we also find out about him from many different sources. We first learn his name and the night he disappeared from Hagrid in the first book. We later find out what happened to him after his defeat from the villain himself at the book’s climax. In the second book we find out about his life as Tom Riddle and a hint at his political views from the piece of his soul in the diary, in the fourth book we find out how he came back to power when he tells it to his followers, in the fifth book we find out about the prophecy from Dumbledore, and our information is completed when we find about him from the flashbacks Dumbledore provides us in the sixth book.

But how do you decide when information is to be revealed? Well, that’s for you as the author to decide, but info should come when it fits or works for the story. Back to Harry Potter for a second. There’s obviously a lot of information about the Wizarding World. So much, that not all of it was revealed in the books and JK Rowling is still giving out snippets of information to us through a variety of sources. Wisely, she only gave out information when it was relevant. Would it have really have helped us, the reader, to know about goblins’ attitudes towards wizards keeping their works in the first book? It would’ve been interesting to know, but it wouldn’t have mattered much to the story at that point. And while we wondered if Hogwarts was the only school for magic in the world, the existence of other schools was only revealed in Book 4 because other schools were a big part of the story. In a similar, you should only reveal information when it’s relevant to the story you’re telling.

Another thing to keep in mind, especially in terms of characters, is we should already feel we know and have an opinion about someone or something before the information is revealed. In one of my favorite anime, Code Geass, we get to know one of the main characters early on, not through the info given to us about his past, but by his personality and actions. We get to know that he is kind, selfless, and will gladly put his life on the line for others, even when it doesn’t make sense to do so. It isn’t until halfway through the first season that we find out the incident in his childhood that made him this way, but by that time we already have a very positive and sympathetic view of this character and the info reveal does surprise us, but doesn’t color our opinion of the character as much as it would’ve if we’d learned that piece of information at the very beginning of the series.

Another great example is Annie Wilkes from Stephen King’s Misery. Early on we don’t know much about Annie besides what she chooses to reveal, and we can’t even rely on that. Why should we? She’s nuts! She’s violent, obsessive, and can switch from sweet to scary at the drop of a hat. By the time we find her scrapbook later in the book, we already know her and how we feel about her. The info in the scrapbook is certainly revealing, but it only adds to our dislike of the character. It isn’t what we base that dislike on.

There’s more I could say about avoiding info-dumps, but that’s a very long article to write. Let’s just finish it by saying that learning to avoid giving out way too much information is something we earn through time and practice. With experience, great tips, and a good bunch of people around you, we learn how to do it while still telling the excellent stories we want to tell.

All that and more will certainly help me when I get around to the next draft of Rose. I’m looking forward to seeing how that turns out when all is said and done!

What tips do you have for avoiding info-dumps? How have they worked out for you?

25 thoughts on “Avoiding the Info-Dump

  1. authorjanebnight August 1, 2015 / 8:48 am

    I tend to info dump on my first draft. I think second and third drafts are usually the best place to find your dumps and figure out how to space them out. Then, you have all the info at hand.

    • Susanna J. Sturgis August 1, 2015 / 9:03 pm

      Definitely agree. That’s one thing that first drafts are for: to figure out what happened and what each character’s backstory is. In subsequent drafts you take that info and shape it, work it in here and there and maybe leave some of it out.

  2. Lauralynn Elliott August 1, 2015 / 12:06 pm

    This is always so tricky because you know you have to reveal stuff, and sometimes you have to reveal THIS before THAT happens, etc. A lot of what you reveal depends on the genre, too. In a cozy mystery, you have a little bit of an info dump at the end, most of the time. It’s when all is revealed about the bad guy and the motive. Sometimes it’s a police officer telling what happened, or it might be the person who figured out the crime that explains how they figured it out and what happened. But that’s different from that info dump that sometimes happens close to the beginning of the story.

    This was a great article, and I think it will help writers avoid this. Honestly, most new writers don’t even know they aren’t supposed to do it. I sure didn’t when I first started out.

    • rami ungar the writer August 1, 2015 / 1:18 pm

      I certainly didn’t either. First attempt at a novel, had to immediately explain why the main character was turning into a giant dog.

  3. alomien August 1, 2015 / 1:30 pm

    Very helpful! Thank you!

  4. dellanioakes August 1, 2015 / 2:04 pm

    Excellent article! I had to work on this aspect of my writing, but I hope that I now have it (more or less) under control. There are so many ways to reveal information about characters, settings, etc. I love using dialogue for this. Also, internal dialogue from one character’s point of view can be useful, if not over used. Good luck with your writing, Rami!

    • rami ungar the writer August 1, 2015 / 3:05 pm

      Thanks Dellani. I appreciate the feedback. Looking forward to the show next month.

  5. Ruth Ann Nordin August 2, 2015 / 9:42 pm

    This is such an excellent article. You’ve hit all the points I would have thought of, and you gave great examples. Being a big fan of Once Upon a Time and Misery, I loved it!

    Info dumping is something I think new writers do without thinking about it. I know I did. I look back and see tons of it in my early books. One fun thing about writing multiple books is that you can see the progress as you go along.

    I’m curious. What is Rose about?

    • rami ungar the writer August 3, 2015 / 1:05 am

      I’m glad you like it, and I have to agree, info-dumping is something a lot of new writers do without thinking. I know I did. Learning to foreshadow and withhold information for later use is something you learn from experience and from seeing others do it.
      Without giving too much away, Rose is about a girl turning into a plant creature, with some elements of Misery and Japanese culture mixed in.

      • Ruth Ann Nordin August 3, 2015 / 11:35 am

        Sounds fun! Are you self-publishing it or looking for a publisher? Either way, I hope you let me know when it’s out.

        • rami ungar the writer August 3, 2015 / 12:52 pm

          Self-publishing. It’s the way of the future. I’ll let you know when it comes out. I think you’d definitely enjoy it.

  6. Chris F August 3, 2015 / 11:40 am

    Awesome post. I am writing my first book but it is a non-fiction book. Most of my writing is non-fiction. I noticed you said that you do fictional writing. With info-dumping I feel that it is a challenge for me because I want to set the stage so the reader is not confused. Is this principle of info-dumping different for non-fiction projects? If not how do I present the information without info-dumping?

    • rami ungar the writer August 3, 2015 / 12:51 pm

      That’s a good question. I don’t think they’d be that different, but I think part of it would depend on what genre you’re in. Are you writing memoir? Essays? True crime?

      • Chris F August 3, 2015 / 1:04 pm

        Self help, motivational, inspirational, maybe a little business/entrepreneurship.

        • rami ungar the writer August 3, 2015 / 3:41 pm

          Well, I’m not sure about the business side, but if you’re doing the self-help and inspirational stuff, I think if you can find a story from your life that’s relevant to a topic you’re discussing and you can keep it within two or three pages, you don’t need to hold back.
          Unless you want to use the story at the beginning of a book or essay and then pick it up later, in which case any big reveals should be held off until you pick it up again.
          That help at all?

        • Ruth Ann Nordin August 3, 2015 / 4:35 pm

          I’m just going to echo what Rami said.

          In the financial, business, and motivational books I’ve read, there’s usually one chapter devoted to a specific subject. For example, one chapter might be “Managing Stress”. In this chapter, the author first discusses strategies in coping effectively with stress. The author takes a real life example of a person who had a high stress level that was getting in the way of their work. There might even be a couple of different people who fall under a specific coping mechanism to deal with stress since there are several techniques. These real life examples are usually brief and to the point so as not to detract from the overall topic.

          If you are dealing with one real life example through the entire book, then I would divide up the real life example where it’s relevant to a specific chapter.

  7. Chris F August 5, 2015 / 11:04 am

    Okay cool thank you everyone for your responses. The way the book is written, it has a lot of real personal stories so I think with your advice and how it is written, I did not info-dump the way you guys discussed earlier. Thank you for your help and I look forward to reading more post on here. Very helpful blog!

  8. Joleene Naylor August 12, 2015 / 6:47 pm

    I tend to not give enough information first time through so then on the second draft I add a bunch, then on the third I take half of that away… *sigh*

    Great article!

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